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Types of Plumbing System in Building Construction

The plumbing system installed in the building has two main objectives to be served. They are:
  1. Supply of water for the human use
  2. To get rid of human waste
The plumbing system of a building will include the water distribution pipes, the fixture and the fixture traps, the waste, soil and the vent pipes, the building drain and building sewer, storm drainage system with their connected devices, connections and appurtenances within the building and outside, that is within the property line.                                 
When considered systems of plumbing, there are four categories. They are:

1.      Single stack system
2.      Partially vented single stack system
3.      One-pipe system
4.      Two-pipe system

1. Single Stack System

Fig.2: Single Stack System in Plumbing

This is the simplest form of plumbing system among the four categories mentioned. The figure-2 shows the basic arrangement of a single stack system. This system of pipes carries waste water from the wash basin, bathrooms, sinks and the foul matters from the water closets. This is connected to a final single pipe. The pipe will terminate as the vent pipe at its top. A single stack system will need the use of traps that are filled with 75mm water seal.

2. Partially Vented Single Stack System

Fig.3.Partially Vented Single Stack System

This is a single stack system where the vent pipe provides ventilation to the traps of the water closet. Here the traps of the wash basin and the sinks are not connected to the vent pipes. The figure-3 shows a partially vented single stack system.

3. One Pipe System

Fig.4: One-Pipe System

Here the system uses a single stack and the vent pipe will receive the connections from all the traps. This will not be the only trap of closets, but also for the sinks, wash basins etc. The figure -4 shows a one pipe system.

4. Two Pipe System

Fig.5: Two-pipe system

This system will make use of separate pipes for connecting the water closets and for the discharges from the basin, baths, sinks etc. Here both pipes are separately ventilated. This system forms a four-pipe connection system. The figure-5 shows the two-pipe system. Most of the multistoried buildings prefer this system.


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