Soil liquefaction can be defined as the phenomenon by which the strength of the soil is lost either due to dynamic or static loading. Most of the earthquake forces are the major causes of soil liquefaction.

Liquefaction accounts for numerous damage to the building structures based on the past records studied.

Process of Soil Liquefaction

The process of soil liquefaction is observed in the loose and saturated soil. In this type of soil, the pores are filled with water and the particles are not allowed to come together even if they wish to become more denser. The action of forces like earthquake won't help in consolidating these water out instead the pressure from the water pores increases. This will reduce the force between the soil particles resulting in softening and weakening of the soil mass.

The situation thus will bring effective stress = 0. Here, the soil will behave like a liquid than like a solid. Hence, the process is called liquefaction.

Soil Liquefaction means,    Effective Stress = 0