What is Interior Design? Principles & Objectives

Interior design is the art of enhancing the interior of a building to create more aesthetics and new dimensions to the space. A good interior design provides the people residing with a more pleasing environment. This helps to increase the efficiency of the way the occupants move our daily lives.

An interior designer is one who conducts related interior design projects. He/She researches plans and coordinates such projects.

What is Interior Design? Principles & Objectives
Fig.1.Microsoft’s New Office Designed by Studio O + A. Image Courtesy: www.hatchdesign.ca

This article describes the primary objectives and principles of interior design and related insights.

Features of Interior Design

Any interior design project would demand different skills and contributions from the design team to make the space to be aesthetically good and to be practically used. 

The spanning of interior design is between interior architecture and interior decoration. This implies that the scope of the interior design project committed can vary from pure interior decoration to interior structural design. Irrespective of the scope, an interior designer like Helen Coulston would approach a project with an interpretation and meaning that would set them apart from interior decorators.

Residential Interior Design

This scope involves the design of interior spaces of private homes or residences. The needs and demands of the client in this case are chiefs in this area of interior design. These are designed for specific individual situations. 

Residential space is either designed by the designer from the start or carries out remodeling of the existing structure. High involvement and commitment are required to make the space finally completed to be as per the client’s desire.

Commercial Interior Design

Here, the interior design is performed in commercial spaces. These spaces include restaurants, lobbies, offices, retail, hospitals, Industrial facilities, sports, traffic building, Visual and spatial branding, etc.

Commercial interior design starts from the initial planning and is performed by proper communication with the architect so that the elements that will determine the final appearance can be discussed. Once the final space is created, furniture and décor are added to meet the design goals of interior design.

Commercial Interior Design
Fig.Kuryakin Meeting Room Designed by Conran & Partners, London, UK

Objectives of Interior Design

The objective of Interior design includes:
  • · Conceptual development
  • · Planning of the space
  • · Site Visits and Inspections
  • · Programming
  • · Researches
  • · Communication with the stakeholders
  • · Management
  • · Execution of the Design 

Principles of Interior Design

The basic principles of Interior design are:

1. Balance
2. Rhythm
3. Harmony
4. Emphasis
5. Proportion and Scale

1. Balance

As the name implies, good interior design must satisfy an equilibrium in space by equalizing the visual heights of the objects present in the given area. Balance can be created through shapes, patterns, colors, and textures.

Balance in Interior Design
Fig.2.Balance in Interior Design

2. Rhythm

Rhythm in interior design is the principle of following or creating patterns repeatedly or in contrast. This creates visual interest for the living. 

Rhythm in Interior Design
Fig.3.Rhythm in Interior Design

Rhythm in interior design can be achieved by using a shape or a color at different intervals. Rhythm makes the eye move around the space or the room.

3. Harmony

When all the elements in space act together to create a unified message, we say harmony is created.

Rhythm creates excitement and harmony creates a feeling of restfulness. For example, harmony is created if you follow different shapes and single colors all around.

Fig.4.Harmony in Interior Design. Project by Behf Architeckten’s Design for BIPA office building
Image Courtesy: www.hatchdesign.ca.

As shown in the figure above, the design implements harmony through the use of color, pattern, and shape as harmonious elements. The design is followed on a couple of floors.

4. Emphasis 

Every space must have special points of interest as per the principle of emphasis in interior design. A space is boring if all the elements present in the area have equal importance.

A special space like a fireplace or a window with a beautiful view would enhance the space. A built-in focal point can be created and furniture is placed around it to emphasize it. A room with no such focal point can keep a big showpiece that creates a focal point.

Fig.5.Pinkeye Crossover Design Studio with emphasis on Yellow desk; Image Courtesy: www.hatchdesign.ca

As shown in figure-, the first emphasis was given to the yellow desk and a textured screen partition forms the secondary emphasis.

5. Proportion and Scale

Bringing a proportional relationship between the objects in the room creates a pleasing look. Great architects and artists follow the proportion present in nature, that is the ratio of the smaller section to the larger section must be the same as the ratio of the larger section to the whole. This helps to avoid the space to be overstuffed. 

The proportion and scale principle says how one object in the room is related to the other.

Fig.6.Proportion and Scale beautifully followed by Design Partners International for KUPER; Image Courtesy: www.hatchdesign.ca

As shown in the figure-6 above, the use of vertical lines on the ceiling provides a clean proportion with other elements present in the space.

Need for Good Interior Design

A thoughtful and well-crafted interior design helps in making the space easier to experience and understand. Hence, interior design is not just an aesthetic aspect, it’s a discipline with practical and philosophical features.

An interior design for commercial purposes is necessary to attract more clients and consumers. For example, a well-designed retail shop makes the space more attractive so that more people would enter the store. This also helps to make people stay for a long period in the shop.

Some commercial projects make use of interior design to establish a particular theme that highlights a particular corporate image.

In the case of residential interior design, it is seen that an interior designer plays with the space more precisely when compared with the idea performed without employing an interior designer. Space is more utilized and unwanted messy looks in residential spaces are reduced by employing a proper interior design.

Benefits of Interior Design

The main positive effects of having interior design are:
  1. An attractive building structure based on the function is obtained
  2. The building is made more functional
  3. Interior designing helps to implement creative ideas that make the structure stand out from others
  4. Interior design makes the space more understandable and follows a particular theme throughout the space.
  5. More organized rooms are obtained by having interior design 

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Post a Comment


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  2. I recently came across this insightful article on interior design principles and objectives on Prodyogi's blog. The tips and guidelines provided here are truly valuable, especially for those seeking home interior designers in Chennai. The emphasis on creating a harmonious and functional living space resonates well with the demands of today's homeowners. The importance of balancing aesthetics with functionality is crucial, and the article provides a comprehensive guide to achieving this delicate balance. For anyone in Chennai looking to elevate their home's interior design, the principles discussed here serve as a fantastic resource. Prodyogi seems to be a reliable source for those seeking expert advice in the realm of interior design.


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