What are Infiltration Wells?

Infiltration wells are shallow discontinuous wells that are constructed along the banks of the river in water-bearing strata, and water is tapped for water supply. Hence, the main purpose of an infiltration well is to infiltrate water in-ground and conserve the unconfined aquifer. 

Infiltration wells are also called interception wells, as they are sunken wells that are constructed to intercept a large quantity of water source, with the objective to tap water from them.

The basic function and construction details of infiltration wells are mentioned in this article.

Objectives of Infiltration Wells

The main objective of infiltration wells in the water supply are:

  1. To infiltrate surface runoff into the ground
  2. To improve the quantity and quality of groundwater
  3. To cultivate environmental awareness on saving and recharging groundwater.
  4. To conserve and save water

Construction Details of Infiltration Wells

Infiltration wells are usually sunk in series on the banks of the river. These are wells usually constructed of masonry with open joists to allow water seepage into the well. 

The wells constructed along the bed are connected by means of porous pipes, that finally meet at a collecting sump or called jack well.

In order to draw water from the nearby aquifer source, the bottom of the wells is equipped with a porous plug. This porous plug is made in the form of an inverted filter. 

In the riverbanks and beds, the water percolates down. The water enters through the filter medium and reaches the well leaving the organic and inorganic impurities away. Hence, the quality of water inside the infiltration well is better than in river water.

Connecting the infiltration wells in series helps to improve the yield of the water. The quality of the water varies with the quality of river water and the depth and distance of the well from the riverbank.

Infiltration wells are vertical structures, while infiltration galleries are horizontal tunnels, but both are sub-surface sources of water.

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