What is Interior Design?

Interior design is the art of enhancing the interior of the building to create more aesthetic and newer dimension to the space. A good interior design provides the people residing with a more pleasing environment. This also helps to increase our efficiency in the way we move our daily lives. An interior designer is one who conduct related interior design projects. He researches, plans and coordinates such projects.

Fig.1.Microsoft’s New Office Designed by Studio O + A. Image Courtesy: www.hatchdesign.ca

Objectives of Interior Design

The objective of Interior design includes:

  1. · Conceptual development
  2. · Planning of the space
  3. · Site Visits and Inspections
  4. · Programming
  5. · Researches
  6. · Communication with the stake holders
  7. · Management
  8. · Execution of the Design

Principles of Interior Design

The basic principles of Interior design are:
1. Balance
2. Rhythm
3. Harmony
4. Emphasis
5. Proportion and Scale


As the name implies, good interior design must satisfy an equilibrium in space by equalising the visual heights of the objects present in the given area. Balance can be created through shape, patterns, color and textures.

Fig.2.Balance in Interior Design


Rhythm in interior design is the principle of following or creating patterns repeatedly or in contrast. This creates a visual interest for the living. Rhythm in interior design can be achieved by using a shape or a color at different intervals. Rhythm makes the eye to move around the space or the room.
Fig.3.Rhythm in Interior Design


When all the elements in a space act together to create a unified message, we say a harmony is created. Rhythm creates excitement and harmony create a feeling of restfulness. For example, harmony is created if you follow different shapes by singe colour all around.

Fig.3.Harmony in Interior Design. Project by Behf Architeckten’s Design for BIPA office buildingImage Courtesy: www.hatchdesign.ca.
As shown in the figure above, the design implements harmony by the use of colour, pattern and shape as the harmonious elements. The design is followed on some couple of floors.


Every space must have special points of interest as per the principle of emphasis in interior design. A space is boring if all the elements present in the area have equal importance. A special space like a fireplace or a window with a beautiful view would enhance the space. A built-in focal point can be created and furniture are placed around to emphasis it. A room with no such focal point can keep a big show piece that creates a focal point.

Fig.4.Pinkeye Crossover Design Studio with emphasis on Yellow desk; Image Courtesy: www.hatchdesign.ca

As shown in figure-, the first emphasis was given to the yellow desk and a textured screen partition forms the secondary emphasis.

Proportion and Scale

Bringing a proportional relationship between the objects in the room creates a pleasing look. Great architects and artists follow the proportion present in the nature, that is the ratio of the smaller section to the larger section must be same as the ratio of larger section to the whole. This helps to avoid the space to be overstuffed. Proportion and scale principle say how one object in the room is related to the other.

Fig.5.Proportion and Scale beautifully followed by Design Partners International for KUPER; Image Courtesy: www.hatchdesign.ca

As shown in the figure-6 above, the use of vertical lines on the ceiling provides a clean proportion with other elements present in the space.

Features of Interior Design

Any interior design project would demand different skills and contribution from the design team in order to make the space to be aesthetically good and to be practically used. The spanning of interior design is between interior architecture and interior decoration. This implies that the scope of the interior design project committed can vary from pure interior decoration to interior structural design. Irrespective of the scope, an interior designer would approach a project with an interpretation and meaning that would set them apart from interior decorators.

Residential Interior Design

This scope involves the design of interior spaces of private homes or residences. The needs and demands of the client in this case are chief in this area of interior design. These are designed for specific individual situations. The space is either designed by the designer from the start or may carry out remodelling of the existing structure. High involvement and commitment are required in order to make the space finally completed to be as per the client’s desire.

Commercial Interior Design

Here, the interior design is performed on commercial spaces. These spaces include restaurants, lobbies, offices, retails, hospitals, Industrial facility, sports, traffic building, Visual and spatial branding etc.

The commercial interior design starts from the initial planning and is performed by proper communication with the architect, so that the elements that will determine the final appearance can be discussed. Once the final space is created, furniture and décor are added to meet the design goals of interior designing.
Fig.6.Kuryakin Meeting Room Designed by Conran & Partners , London, UK

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Need for Good Interior Design

A thoughtful and well-crafted interior design helps in making the space easier to experience and understand. Hence, interior design is not just an aesthetic aspect, it’s a discipline with practical and philosophical features.

An interior design for commercial purpose is necessary to attract more clients and consumers. For example, a well-designed retail shop makes the space more attractive that more people would enter the store. This also helps to make people stay for long period in the shop.

Some commercial projects make use of interior design to establish a particular theme that highlights a particular corporate image.

In the case of residential interior design, it is seen that an interior designer plays with the space more precisely when compared with the idea performed without employing an interior designer. Space is more utilised and that unwanted messy looks in residential spaces is reduced by employing a proper interior design.

Benefits of Interior Design

The main positive effects of having interior design are:

1. An attractive building structure based on the function is obtained

2. The building is made more functional

3. Interior designing helps to implement creative ideas that makes the structure stand out from others

4. Interior design makes the space more understanding and follows a particular theme throughout the space.

5. More organised rooms are obtained by having interior design 

Read More: What is Concrete Resurfacing?


1. www.hatchdesign.ca

2. www.wikepedia.com

3. Interior Design by Jenny Gibbes


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  7. Yes, it's true that a commercial interior design starts with planning and proper communication with an architect. Communication is very critical when it comes to creating a design since it will determine the final outcome of the project.

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    home interior is a field that has seen tremendous change in the past years. There are designers who can go from being a student of interior design to being an industry professional overnight, there are trends and styles that come and go every year, there are new technology (lighting, furniture, etc.) that transform our homes.

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