How to make Concrete?

Concrete is made by using mainly three important materials i.e cement, aggregates and water. The aggregates used are a combination of coarse aggregates and fine aggregates. The type of concrete differs based on the concrete mix employed and the purpose of making concrete.

The composition of the materials to make concrete is explained in the figure-1 below.
Concrete Composition
Fig.1.Concrete Composition; Image Courtesy:

Proportioning Concrete

Proportioning concrete is the method of determining the ratio of every material used in the making of concrete. Concrete proportion is in the form of
 cement: fine aggregate: coarse aggregate: water

Design of concrete mix is based on the standard guidelines of the region. The design mix is selected based on the required grade of concrete. It can be either M20, M25 or M30 mix. 

Making of Concrete

In simple words, the making of concrete requires the following steps:

  1. Determine the Concrete Mix Proportion
  2. Determine the quantity of cement, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates and water
  3. Determine the need for admixtures and its quantity.
  4. All the materials are measured and mixed together.
  5. Once water is added and mixed, the process of hydration starts.
  6. Hydration results in concrete hardening.
  7. Once the mix is ready, the mixture is poured into the desired mold.
  8. The mixture is compacted and leveled. Higher the compaction, denser the concrete.
  9. Once hardened, the concrete is cured for 7 to 14 days depending on the type of concrete structure made.