In surveying in lines are directions are specified using bearings and azimuths. Angles and bearings are used to locate the points and the orientation of the line.
Note: Angles can be either horizontal or vertical. It is based on the plane in which angles are measured. A horizontal angle is measured in horizontal plane and a vertical angle is measured in vertical plane.
Horizontal angles are the basic measurements performed to determine the bearings and azimuths.
How Are Bearings or Azimuths Measured in Surveying?
The bearings and azimuths are horizontal angles that are measured in the field using a compass, theodolite or a sextant. The angles can also be measured indirectly using chain or tape, by solving some simple geometrical figures.
Measurement of Angles in Surveying
An angle is measured by three components:
- Reference line
- Direction of turning
- Magnitude of the angular distance
Horizontal Angles in Surveying
- Interior or exterior angles
- Angles measured to the right or left
- Deflection angles
1. Interior Angles or Exterior Angles in Surveying
2. Angles Measured to the Right & Left
|Clockwise and Anti Clockwise Angles Measured
Now, the angles are measured clockwise or anti-close-wise based on how the traverse goes. If the traverse polygon moves in clockwise direction, the angles are measured in clockwise. If the traversing is moved in anti-clockwise direction, then the angle is measured in anti-clockwise direction.