What are Construction Drawings? Types of Construction Drawings?

Construction drawings are drawings that includes all set of drawings (Types of drawings used in construction) necessary to proceed a construction project. It is the main set of drawings that are provided along with the tender documents of a project during bidding process. The contract documents, the specifications, the rules and regulations, the rates of item, and the rate of contract are all developed based on the construction drawings. This concludes that the construction drawing have very much legal significance as it forms a part of contract document.


Features of Construction Drawings

The main purpose of construction drawings are:
  • Graphical visualization of the structure to be built
  • Each construction drawing must be unique and coordinated, avoiding ambiguity and confusion
  • Construction drawings gives the specification explaining the details of materials, standards, techniques and method to control the work
  • The arrangement of construction components, details and dimensions are also explained in construction drawings.
  • The construction drawings are drawn to scale, a single scale is followed. Any use of two or more scales must be specified in the drawing.
  • The drawings are performed by following standard rules and regulations of architectural or engineering drawings
  • A complete set of construction drawing includes, floor plans, elevations, sections and detailed drawings that represent the whole building.
  • The construction drawings can be either prepared by hand or by CAD software.

Types of Construction Drawings used in Construction

When drawings used in construction are put together and enlisted, they make a very large number. But we can study this topic by categorizing under main headings to make good understanding and confusions. The drawings used in construction can be categorized into:
  1. Civil Drawings
  2. Architectural Drawings
  3. Structural Drawings
  4. Electrical Drawings
  5. Plumbing Drawings
  6. Finishing Drawings
The types of drawings that comes under each are categorized and tabulated below

CIVIL

ARCHITECTURAL

STRUCTURAL

ELECTRICAL

PLUMBING

FINISHING

Site Plan

Sketches/Concept Drawings

Design Drawing

Electrical Power Floor Plan

Plumbing Floor Plans

Elevation Designs

Site Details

Location drawings/general arrangement drawings

Engineering Drawing

Electrical Lighting Floor Plan

Plumbing Details

Painting designs

Paving and Grading Plan

Floor plans

Component Drawing

Electrical Details and Schedules

 

False Ceiling Designs

Storm Sewer Plan

Elevations

 

Production Drawing

Wiring Diagram

 

Floor Patterns

Erosion Control Notes

Section drawings

Scale Drawing

Connection Diagrams

 

Plastering Details

 

Construction drawings/working drawings

Assembly Drawings

 


 

 


               Table.1: Major Classification of Drawings used in Construction Industry

1. Civil Drawings in Building Construction

As enlisted in the table-1 above, civil drawings include all the basic drawing details that provides a overall picture of the whole project. These drawings do not provide the specific details of every components of the building. The civil drawings has:
  • Site Plan
  • Site Details
  • Paving and Grading Plan
  • Storm Sewer Plan
  • Erosion Control Plans
Depending on how big or small the project is, list of drawings can reduce. Here, we have collected all possible drawings that can come under this category.

2. Architectural Drawings in Building Construction

An architectural drawing is also called as architect's drawing. It is an technical drawing of the building or structure that are developed and used by architects or civil engineers. The main purposes of an architectural drawing are:
  1. To Develop a Design Idea
  2. To Convert Design into a Proposal
  3. To communicate Ideas and Concepts
  4. To impress and convince the Client
  5. To assist the Building Contractor
  6. To keep it as a Record of the Document
  7. To make the Record of a Old Building
The main types coming under architectural drawings are:
  • Sketches or Concept Drawings
  • Location Drawings or General Arrangement Drawings
  • Floor Plans
  • Elevation
  • Section Drawings
  • Construction Drawings or Working Drawings

3. Structural Drawings in Building Construction

Structural drawing is a type of engineering drawing that includes all set of plans that are used to built the structure. These drawings are developed by registered civil or structural engineers. They also take assistance from the architects.
The structural drawings communicate the complete in-depth design of all the elements of the structure. This is submitted to the government authority for review. These documents are included with the contract documents while bidding contractors.
Structural drawing includes:
  • Design Drawings
  • Engineering Drawing
  • Component Drawing
  • Production Drawing
  • Scale Drawing
  • Assembly Drawings

4. Electrical Drawings

Electrical drawings are also called as wiring diagrams. It is a technical drawing type that communicates the electrical systems or circuits. The drawings explain the design to the electricians or other workers who deal with installation and repair of electrical systems.
The electrical drawings include:
  • Site plan with building location and external wiring
  • Floor plan showing position of electrical systems
  • Wiring diagrams that shows physical connections and the layout of the electrical system
  • Schedules 
  • Miscellaneous Information

5. Plumbing Drawings

Plumbing drawing in building construction are set of drawings that shows the layout of systems of pipes and piping arrangement that serve the process of carrying fresh water into the building and disposing the waste water from the building safely. The drawings that are included in plumbing drawings are:
  • Plumbing Floor Plans
  • Water Supply System Drawings
  • Irrigation System Drawings
  • Storm-water System Drawings
  • Drainage System Drawings

6. Finishing Drawings

The finishing drawings are all the drawings that shows the final details of appearance, paintings and exterior details of how the final structure will look.

The figure below shows the Index of a construction drawings that shows the details of all the drawings mentioned in the drawing sheet.

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Anre
Hi, I am Anre. I am a structural engineering professional. Prodyogi is a blog I started to share knowledge on civil engineering to the constructors around the world. Each article in Prodyogi is explained precisely to make it simple for everyone to understand. Support Prodyogi and Join the community so that we can learn together.

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