Types of Surveying Based on Instruments

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We will have quick view on different types of survey based on the instruments:

1. Chain Survey
2. Compass Survey
3. Plane table survey
4. Levelling
5. Theodolite Survey
6. Tacheometric Survey
7. Photogrammetric Survey

1. Chain Survey

Chain survey is a method of surveying that involves linear measurement in ground.Â

Principle behind chain surveyingÂ Â  Â Â  Â  Â : Triangulation
Instrument used in Chain SurveyingÂ Â  Â : Measuring Chain

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2. Compass Surveying

Compass surveying is a method of surveying that is used to measure survey lines and their directions from north, south , west and east. Hence, these directions are measured in horizontal angles called as bearings. Here, other than the measurement of horizontal angles, linear measurements are taken.

Principle behind compass surveyingÂ Â  Â Â Â  Â Â  Â  Â  :Traversing
Instrument used in compass surveyingÂ  Â  Â Â : PrismaticÂ Compass for Horizontal bearing measurement and Measuring chain for linear measurements.

3. Plane Table Survey

A plane table survey is a graphical method of survey. In this method, we take the field observations and directly plot in on the paper at the field itself.

Principle of Plane table surveying: Parallelism
Instruments used for Plane table surveying: Alidade, plumb bob, spirit level, trough compass and drawing sheet.

4. Levelling

Levelling is a method of surveying in which the relative vertical heights of points are determined with respect to a known surface or point.

Instruments used: A dumpy level and a graduated staff

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5. Theodolite Survey

Theodolite survey is a method of survey that is used to locate the position of a point using vertical and horizontal angle measurement.Â

Principle Â Â  Â :Trigonometry
Instrument : Theodolite

6. Tacheometric Surveying

Tacheometric survey is a rapid and economical surveying by which the horizontal distanced and the differences in elevation are determined indirectly using a theodolite and a graduated rod.

PrincipleÂ Â  Â Â Â  Â Â  Â  Â :Principle of Isosceles Triangle
Instrument Used: Tacheometer